Bibliography Ng Aborsyon

There have been an increasing number of abortion cases throughout the world. This scenario has been fuelled by among other factors social and economic factors. Abortion is the termination of pregnancy. It is the removal of the foetus before it is viable. It is usually done before the foetus gets to 25 weeks old. It is either spontaneous or induced abortion. Abortion refers to the induced type (Malcolm 1977 page 12).

In developed countries, abortion is legal whereas most developing countries do not encourage and permit abortion. This brings about the differences in safe and unsafe abortions. Abortion accounts for over 70,000 maternal deaths worldwide.

Abortion has a long history. In the past, it was done using crude tools such as sharpened tools, physical trauma and other traditional methods. With advancement in the field of medicine, contemporary methods are now used and involve the use of medication and surgical procedures (Nada 1998 page 61).

Each country in the world has different legality, cultural and religious statuses and prevalence of abortion. The ethical principles towards abortion and removal of pregnancies also vary. Countries such as the United States of America and Britain have heated politics surrounding the issue of abortion in pro-life and pro-choice campaigns (Ted 1995 page 66). These are based on the argument that for one group, it should be legalized and for the other, abortion should not. Most governments in the developed countries have legalized abortion. Many developing and underdeveloped countries have not legalized abortion and have no control over what is done by the medical personnel.

Abortion and childbirth complications have been the leading causes of maternal deaths the world over. With the advent of the 21st century, maternal deaths have declined. This has been attributed to education on family planning as well as the use of contraceptives.

Induced abortion
A third of pregnancies occurring in the world today are unintended. A fifth of these pregnancies end up in induced abortion. Induced abortion is the forceful removal of the foetus from the womb of the mother. The gestation age of the foetus is the determining factor of what procedures could be used to conduct the abortion. The procedure is also limited by the legality of abortion in that country, doctor patient preference and the regional availability of such services.

Induced abortion is either therapeutic or elective. Therapeutic abortion is done by medical personnel in an effort to save the lives of patients. Patients suffering from such things as illnesses, multiple pregnancies and complications could have this procedure done on them to avoid having complications at childbirth that may lead to loss of life (World health organisation 1979 page 16). Elective abortion is done at the request of the woman. This is usually done for non-medical reasons.

It is commonly referred to as miscarriages. They are unintentional. They usually occur before the 20th and 24th week. Many pregnancies are usually lost before doctors are aware of the presence of an embryo in the uterus. Spontaneous abortion is caused by chromosomal abnormalities, vascular diseases, diabetes, infections, uterus abnormalities and trauma among others (Isabel 1992 page 123). The most frequent causes of spontaneous abortion are age and a history of spontaneous abortions. Accidents and trauma have also been linked with the high rates of miscarriages among women.

Causes of abortion
Abortion is caused by a myriad of factors among them social, religious and economic factors.
The society’s desire for convenience has been a factor influencing the rates of abortion. Children and pregnancy are seen as a hindrance to a lot of fun and pleasure. One would easily remove the pregnancy in pursuit of this pleasure. The society accepts this circumstance and even encourages it by allowing governments to legalize abortion.

The lack for respect for life is a religious factor towards promoting abortion. People no longer appreciate new life forms. One would not think twice before doing an abortion. Raging debates have come up suggesting that a foetus is not a life form until it is born. Such debates could easily change people’s mindsets to disregard life.

Economic issues including poverty and insufficient funding have promoted abortion. Many young mothers have opted to do an abortion citing the inability to take care of the child once it is born. Usually such young girls do not have an income to support themselves leave the unborn child.

Stigma has contributed a lot in ensuring that abortion becomes a common thing. Girls who get pregnant while still very young get criticism especially in the developing countries. In most cultures, such a thing was unheard of. It was unheard of for one to get a child outside marriage. If one would have such a child, she would be excommunicated. Developing countries have not fully come out of this and girls who get pregnant whilst young are looked upon as ill-mannered individuals.

Rape has been a big reason why people abort their children. When rape has occurred, and one does not intend to keep the pregnancy, she would choose not to keep the baby. The experience of being raped is too big a burden that the evidence of such an ordeal in the form of a child would not be acceptable. Many girls would quickly abort to rid themselves of this psychological trauma.

Young girls have a better chance at furthering their education once they get rid of the child. In African countries for instance, a young girl getting pregnant meant that she would have to be married off immediately. This would ruin her chances of ever getting formal education again. Getting rid of the baby provides an easier way out in the quest for education and a brighter future.

Methods used in abortion
There are two main methods used during abortions i.e. use of the abortion pill and surgical removal.

The abortion pill is used for pregnancies up to nine weeks old. A combination of two drugs is taken. They are taken within 48 hours. The effect of the drugs is that the womb contracts and sheds its lining. The process is painful. This pain is experienced on the lower abdomen. It may cause diarrhea and vomiting.

Surgical removal can be done when the foetus is at 13 to 14 weeks. A sterile tube is inserted through the cervix and into the uterus. Suction is done pulling out all the materials in the uterus. The woman may leave the hospital the same day after the procedure has been done. At 14 and 15 weeks, surgical dilation is done using forceps to remove the unwanted foetus.

Complications of abortion
The most common is bleeding. Bleeding occurs normally for a few weeks. It decreases as one nears weeks 5 and 6. In cases of excessive bleeding, there are chances that the uterus may not have been emptied completely.

Pelvic inflammatory disease. This disease affects the vaginal area. The vagina produces an unpleasant vaginal discharge. The body temperature of the individual rises, and she experiences severe abdominal pains. Inflammation may happen in the womb due to emptying problems (Shirleen 2003 page 40). It may be caused because the womb had not been completely emptied. This would require that a new evacuation be done for the woman.

Pain is a normal problem for the abortion process. It is often relieved by using painkillers. In instances where there is excessive pain, one should consult the doctor to have her uterus rechecked.

The uterus may be punctured especially during surgical termination of pregnancy. The tools used may create a hole in the uterus causing complications. Such a patient is kept in the hospital for observation and check up (Bodo 1998 page 159).

Abortion gives a chance to young women especially those below the age of 21 years to pursue their education. A young girl caught in a situation where she has to carry the child to term will mean that she cannot do anything else. She would have to stop learning at some point to address the needs of the child. Most likely, she would have to stop schooling all together to take care of the child. By getting rid of the foetus, she is able to continue pursuing her educational needs.

Abortion has been of help to women with health issues. Women with diseases such as heart disease, hypertension and sickle cell anemia have been able to avoid serious medical complications that arise from childbirth through abortions. Such complications could easily lead to loss of life. Usually a doctor may prescribe such a procedure when he realizes that the life of the mother is in danger.

Abortion gives women identity. In the chauvinistic societies, women have no power at all over their reproductive sense. The inculcation of abortion into laws and codes of ethics has helped the women by giving them power over their sexuality.

Abortion has been used to control family size. Young motherhood is easily avoided through abortion. A woman may choose to have an abortion to prevent her from becoming a mother at a very tender age.

Parents have used abortion as a way to reduce the number of children that they may get. Parents have used this to trim the numbers of children. They would discuss whether they wanted the baby or not and would remove it in case they do not want it. This helps regulate the number of children and aids in family planning.

Rape victims have found solace in the fact that they could easily remove such children that would arise from such action. Rape victims would not want to keep the baby because of psychological trauma that they would associate this child to. Removal of the child would remain the best option to end this.

Abortion indicates brutality to the unborn child. This is because abortion is killing. It does not give the new foetus a chance to survive. It is hinged on religion, which condemns the act saying that all are equal before the almighty. The spiritual books go against the very idea of abortion.

Abortion encourages infidelity by women. Women would engage in sexual acts outside the marriage context with the view that they would remove such fetuses if they happened to implant themselves in their uterus. Once a woman gets pregnant, she would easily remove the pregnancy and continue with her life.

Abortion has the potential of lessens chances of a woman getting a child later in life. Abortion interferes with the uterine wall. At other instances, it may lead to total damage of the uterus. This would result in bareness hence a woman would not get a child when she needs it later in her life. Such actions may also cause hormonal imbalances that could be attributed to the barren nature of the women later in their lives.

Abortion promotes irresponsible behavior. This is because it gives women and men alike the freedom to commit careless sexual activities. This is because they know that they could easily get rid of the pregnancy if they so wish to. This freedom makes them care less about their sexuality.

Concurrent abortions may lead to medical complications. Some of these complications include uterine infections, recurrent miscarriages and sepsis among others. Consistent use of such methods causes the hormones to change. This means that the hormones are tuned to a program where they cannot sustain a full pregnancy to term. The body gets used to rejecting any pregnancy hence the case of consistent miscarriages may pop up.

Abortion may end up causing psychological impairments. Examples of this include depression and guilt. Some women may feel depressed after losing their baby. This could be the case especially, if the child was their first and the abortion was done as a medical thing that they had no control over. Continuous miscarriages may cause such individuals stress and eventual depression. This would ultimately affect the biology of the mother affecting the subsequent pregnancies. This is because the brain would have been tuned to reject any pregnancies due to such depression.

Alternatives to abortion
Churches, nongovernmental organisations and the government run campaigns against abortion. In such campaigns, they ask mothers to look for other options other than abortion. Some of these options include adoption as well as being provided with the necessary help to enable them carry the pregnancy to term.

Adoption is a widely used practice in many countries. It involves the transfer of ownership of a child to other parents who would love to take care of it. The child is usually given to adopting parents because the mother could not afford to raise him or would love to pursue other things. Adoption is an option that comes in handy because the mother is relieved of all duties about the child as it is taken up by a different family. The mother is assured that the child would be safe with the adopting parents. The mother can then go through with her plans without the child getting in the way.

Providing support to such mothers is another option that has been explored. Nongovernmental organisations and church groups have come together to pull resources to support such young mothers through their pregnancy. They have also been of importance in supporting them as they take care of the child. They support them with such things as financial resources and psychological counseling.

Abortion is a social, medical and a religious issue. It is entrenched into the legal laws of every country in the world in one way or another. It has a place in the lives of individuals directly or indirectly. Ethical values arise out of such deeds as abortion that determines the direction that one chooses. Other mechanisms that control abortion include the legal and religious aspects of society.

Providing the necessary support in the form of financial aid and psychological support to mothers contemplating abortion could serve as the best way to curb such deaths resulting from abortion.

There are advantages and disadvantages of abortion of almost equal measure. Abortion presents a double-edged sword in its advantages and disadvantages to individuals and society. It should be after careful consideration that abortion should be done (Patricia 1992 page 93).

Our professional research paper writers can help with writing research papers on any Abortion topics. Prices start at $10/page only. Contact our custom research paper writing service now!

4.50 avg. rating (88% score) - 6 votes

Tags: abortion research paper example, abortion research paper sample, abortion research papers, abortion research proposal, abortion term paper

See also Medical Journal Format

Here is a link with information on how to properly create an APA style reference.


Adler, N. E. (1975). Emotional responses of women following therapeutic abortion: How great a problem? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 240-259.

Adler, N., David, H., Major, B., Roth, S., Russo, N., & Wyatt, G. (1992). Psychological factors in abortion. American Psychologist, 47, 1194-1204.

Allanson, S., & Astbury, J. (2001). Attachment style and broken attachments: Violence, pregnancy, and abortion. Australian Journal of Psychology, 53, 146-151.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, 427-428. American Psychiatric Press: Washington, D.C.

Armsworth, M. (1991). Psychological response to abortion. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69, 377-379.

Anthanasiou, R., Oppel, W., Michelson, L., Unger, T., & Yager, M. (1973). Psychiatric sequelae to term birth and induced early and late abortion: A longitudinal study. Family Planning Perspectives, 5, 227-231.

Ashton, J. (1980). The psychosocial outcome of induced abortion. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 87, 1115-1122.


Barnard, C. (1990). The long term psychosocial effects of abortion. Institute for Pregnancy Loss: Jacksonville, Florida.

Bogen, I. (1974). Attitudes of women who have had abortions. Journal of Sex Research, 10, 97-109.

Bonavoglia, A. (ed.) (1991). The choices we made: Twenty-five women and men speak out about abortion. Random House Press: New York.

Bracken, M. B. (1978). A causal model of psychosomatic reactions to vacuum aspiration abortion. Social Psychiatry, 13, 135-145.

Burke, T., & Reardon, D.C. (2002). Forbidden grief: The unspoken pain of abortion. Acorn Books: Springfield, IL.


Campbell, N., Franco, K. & Jurs, S. (1988). Abortion in adolescence. Adolescence, 23, 813-823.

Coleman, P. K., Reardon, D. C., Rue, V., & Cougle, J. (2002)(a). State-funded abortions vs. deliveries: A comparison of outpatient mental health claims over four years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 141-152.

Coleman, P.K., Reardon, D.C., Rue, V.M. & Cougle, J. (2002)(b). A history of induced abortion in relation to substance abuse during pregnancies carried to term. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 187, 1673-1678.

Congleton, G. & Calhoun, L. (1993). Post-abortion perceptions: A comparison of self-identified distressed and non-distressed populations. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 39, 255-265.

Congressional Record (1989). Medical and psychological impact of abortion. In: Hearing Before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress First Session. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Conklin, M. & OConnor, B. (1995). Beliefs about the fetus as a moderator of postabortion psychological well-being. Journal of Social Psychiatry, 39, 76-81.

Cozzarelli, C. (1993). Personality and self-efficacy as predictors of coping with abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1224-1236.

Cozzarelli, C., Karrasch, A., Sumer, N., & Major, B. (1994). The meaning and impact of partners accompaniment on womens adjustment to abortion. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 2028-2056.

Crawford, D. & Mannion, M.(1989). Psycho-spiritual healing after abortion. Sheed & Ward: Kansas City, Missouri.


Dagg, P. (1981). The psychological sequelae of therapeutic abortion. American Journal of Psychiatry, 5, 578-585.

De Puy, C. & Dovitch, D. (1997). The Healing Choice. New York: Simon & Schuster.

DeVeber, L., Ajzenstat, J., & Chisholm, D. (1991). Postabortion grief: Psychological sequelae of induced abortion. Humane Medicine, 7, 203-209.

Doherty, P. (ed.) (1995). Post-Abortion Syndrome: Its wide ramifications. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Dutton, M., et al. (1994). Battered womens cognitive schemata. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7: 237-255.


El-Mallakh, R. & Tasman, A. (1991). Recurrent abortions in a bulimic: Implications regarding pathogenesis. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10, 215-219.

Esaulova, I. (1994). The abortion problem in Russia. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on Grief and Bereavement in Contemporary Society, Stockholm.


Franco, K. et al. (1989). Anniversary reactions and due date responses following abortion. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 52, 151-154.

Franz, W. & Reardon, D. (1992). Differential impact of abortion on adolescents & adults. Adolescence, 27, 162-172.

Freed, L., & Salazar, P. (1993). A season to heal: Help and hope for those working through post-abortion stress. Thomas Nelson: Nashville, Tennessee.


Gold, D., Berger, C., & Andres, D. (1979). The abortion choice: Psychological determinants and consequences. Montreal: Concordia University, Department of Psychology.

Gould, N. B. (1980). Postabortion depressive reactions in college women. Journal of American College Health Association, 28, 316-320.


Hanley, D., Piersma, H., King, D., Larson, D. & Foy, D. (1992). Women outpatients reporting continuing post-abortion distress: A preliminary inquiry. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Post-Traumatic Stress Studies, Los Angeles.

Henshaw, S., Singh, S. & Haas, T. (1999). The incidence of abortion worldwide. International Family Planning Perspectives, 25, (Suppl.), S30-S38.

Hittner, A. (1987). Feelings of well-being before and after an abortion. American Mental Health Counselors Association Journal, 9, 98-104.


Illsley, R., & Hall, M. H. (1976). Psychological aspects of abortion: A review of issues and needed research. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 53, 83-103.


Jones, E. F., & Forrest, J. D. (1992). Under reporting of abortion in surveys of U.S. women: 1976 to 1988. Demography, 29, 113-126.


Kent, I., Greenwood, R. C., Loeken, J., & Nicholls, W. (1978). Emotional sequelae of elective abortion. British Columbia Medical Journal, 20, 118-119.

Kero, A., Hoegberg, U., Jacobsson, L., & Lalos, A. (2001). Legal abortion: A painful necessity. Social Science and Medicine, 53, 1481-1490.

Koop, C.E. (1989). Letter to R.W. Reagan, January 9.


Lazarus, A. (1985). Psychiatric sequelae of legalized first trimester abortion. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 141-150.

Llewellyn, S. P., & Pytches, R. (1988). An investigation of anxiety following termination of pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 13, 468-471.


Major, B. et al. (1990). Perceived social support, self-efficacy, and adjustment to abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 186-197.

Major, B., & Cozzarelli, C. (1992). Psychological predictors of adjustment to abortion. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 121-142.

Major, B., Cozzarelli, C., Cooper, M.L., Zubek, J., Richards, C., Wilhite, M., & Gramzow, R.H. (2000). Psychological responses of women after first-trimester abortion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(8), 777-84.

Major, B. & Gramzow, R.H. (1999). Abortion as a stigma: Cognitive and emotional implications of concealment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(4), 735-745.

Major, B., Zubek, J. M., Cooper, M. L., Cozzarelli, C., & Richards, C. (1997). Mixed Messages: Implications of social conflict and social support within close relationships for adjustment to a stressful life event. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1349-1363.

Mall, D. & Watts, W. (1979). The Psychological Aspects of Abortion. University Publications of America, Washington, D.C.

Miller, W. B. (1992). An empirical study of the psychological antecedents and consequences of induced abortion. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 67-93.

Mannion, M. (1994). Post-abortion aftermath: A comprehensive consideration. Sheed & Ward: Kansas City, Missouri.

McCann, I. & Pearlman, L. (1990). Psychological Trauma and the Adult Survivor: Theory, Therapy and Tranformation. Brunner/Mazel: New York.

Michels, N. (1988). Helping women recover from abortion. Bethany: Minneapolis, Minneapolis.


Ney, P. & Wickett, A. (1989). Mental health & abortion: Review & analysis. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 14, 506-516.


Osofsky, J. D., & Osofsky, H. J. (1972). The psychological reaction of patients to legalized abortion. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 42, 48-60.

Ostbye, T., Wenghofer, E. F., Woodward, C. A., Gold, G., & Craighead, J. (2001). Health services utilization after induced abortions in Ontario: A comparison between community clinics and hospitals. American Journal of Medical Quality, 16, 99-106.


Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. & Stublefield, P. (eds.) (1999). A clinicians guide to medical & surgical abortion. New York: Churchill Livingstone.Pearlman, L. & McCann, P. (1992). The TSI Belief Scale: Normative Data from Four Criterion Groups. Unpublished manuscript. Traumatic Stress Institute, South Windsor, Connecticut.

Pope, L., Adler, N. & Tschann, J. (1999). Postabortion psychological adjustment: Are minors at increased risk? Unpublished paper, Exhibit 2, Affidavit of Nancy E. Adler, Ph.D. in North Florida Womens Health and Counseling Services, Inc., et al. v. State of Florida, et al. In the Circuit Court of the Second Judicial Circuit in and for Leon County, Tallahassee, Florida.

Popov, A. (1990). Sky-high abortion rates reflect dire lack of choice. European Family Planning Magazine,16, 5-7.

Popov, A. (1996). Family planning and induced abortion in post-Soviet Russia of the early 1990's: Unmet needs in Information Supply. In DaVanzo, J. (ed.) Russias demographic “crisis.” Rand: Santa Monica, California.


Reardon, D. (1987). Aborted women: Silent no more. Crossway: Westchester, Illinois.

Reardon, D. & Ney, P. (2000). Abortion and subsequent substance abuse. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 26, 61-75.

Reardon, D. C., & Cougle, J. (2002) Depression and Unintended Pregnancy in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A cohort Study. British Medical Journal, 324, 151-152.

Reardon, D.C., Cougle, J.R., Rue, V.M., Shuping, M.W. Coleman, P.K., Ney P.G. (2003) Psychiatric admissions of low income women following abortion and childbirth. Canadian Medical Association Journal. In press.

Reisser, T. & Reisser, P. (1989). Help for the post-abortion woman. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Remennick, L. (1990). Induced abortion as cancer risk factor a review of epidemiological evidence. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 44, 259-264.

Ring-Cassidy, E. & Gentles, I. (2002). Womens health after abortion: The medical and psychological evidence. Toronto, Canada: DeVeber Institute.

Rogers, J., Stoms, G. & Phifer, J. (1989). Psychological impact of abortion. Health Care for Women International, 10, 347-376.

Rue, V. (1986). Abortion in relationship context. International Review of Natural Family Planning ,19, 95-121.

Rue, V. & Speckhard, A. (1991). Post-abortion trauma: Incidence & diagnostic considerations. Medicine & Mind, 6, 57-74.

Russo, N., & Denious, J. E. (2001). Violence in the lives of women having abortions: Implications for policy and practice. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 32, 142-150.

Russo, N., & Zierk, K. (1992). Abortion, childbearing and women's well-being. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 23, 269-280.


Selby, T. (1990). The mourning after: help for Post-Abortion Syndrome. Baker: Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Soderberg, H., Janzon, L., & Slosberg, N-O. (1998). Emotional distress following induced abortion: A study of its incidence and determinants among adoptees in Malmo, Sweden. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 79, 173-178.

Speckhard, A. (1987). Psycho-Social Stress Following Abortion. Sheed & Ward: Kansas City, Missouri.

Speckhard, A., & Rue, V. (1992). Post-abortion syndrome: An emerging public health concern. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 95-119.

Speckhard, A., & Rue, V. (1993). Complicated mourning & abortion. Journal of Pre- and Peri-natal Psychology, 8, 5-32.

Stanford-Rue, S. (1986). Will I cry tomorrow? Healing post-abortion trauma. Revell: Fleming, New Jersey.

Stotland, N. (1992). The myth of the abortion trauma syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 2078.

Stotland, N. (1993). Realistic reflections on an emotional subject. Journal of Clinical Ethics, 4, 177-178.

Stotland, N. (1998). Abortion: Facts & feelings. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Stotland, N. () Abortion: Social context, psychodynamic implications.


Thorp, J., Hartmann, K. & Shadigian, E. (2002). Long-term physical and psychological health consequences of induced abortion: Review of the evidence. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 58, 67-79.

Torre-Bueno, A. (1996). Peace after abortion. San Diego, CA.: Pimpernell Press.


Wilmoth, G., deAlteriis, M., & Bussell, D. (1992). Prevalence of psychological risks following legal abortion in the U.S.: Limits of the evidence. Journal of Social Issues 48, 37-66.

Winkler, K. (1992). When the crying stops: Abortion, the pain and the healing. Northwestern: Milwaukee, Wisconsin.


Zakus, G. & Wilday, S. (1987). Adolescent abortion option. Social Work in Health Care, 12, 77-91.

Zolese, G., & Blacker, C. (1992). The psychological complications of therapeutic abortion British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 742-749.

0 thoughts on “Bibliography Ng Aborsyon

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *