The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to lead the reader to an exact item in the bibliography, so the first entry in the bibliography (usually author’s last name, sometimes title if no author is listed) is what is included in the parenthetical citation. Additionally, the exact point (page number) is listed.
Plagiarism is using the words, thoughts, or ideas of someone else without giving credit. Plagiarism can take many forms, and it can be intentional or accidental.
"Along with using someone’s direct words without quotation marks and attribution, plagiarism includes using someone’s thoughts or ideas and representing them as one’s own. For example, if you were to change the wording of a passage, but not credit the source, you are plagiarizing as much as if you used the original words. This presents something of a conundrum: students are required to use the research and writing of others, but such use is limited. In most research assignments, students are encouraged – or even required – to use the research of others, but proper credit must be given.
To ensure that you will give credit appropriately, begin by keeping your research materials organized. There are many note-taking systems available to assist you, but it is essential that you keep track of which ideas came from which sources. After finding good information from a reputable source, you must then integrate that information into your paper. There are several methods of doing this: quotation, paraphrase, and summary." (Talman)
|LEO: Literacy Education Online|
A bibliography or works cited provides readers with the author, title and publication details of a source, whereas an annotated bibliography adds a brief summary, or annotation, about each source (book, magazine, journal, etc.). Placed just below the facts of the publication, the annotation describes the content of the work so that future reference to the entry by a researcher will provide essential data.
When writing the annotation, provide enough information in approximately three to five sentences for readers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the source's purpose, content, and special value. Be sure to use complete sentences and to avoid wordiness.
- List the completed bibliographical citation.
- Explain the main purpose of the work.
- Briefly describe the content.
- Indicate the possible audience for the work.
- Evaluate the relevance of the information.
- Note any special features.
- Warn readers of any defect, weakness, or bias.
Annotations take different forms, depending on the type of source and on the audience. Articles are often argumentative; in these instances, the writer should incorporate the author's position on the particular issue being addressed. The writer may choose to include quotes and/ or references to individuals or to specific experiments for emphasis.
In longer works, the material may often be more referential than argumentative in nature. In these cases, the writer may choose to give a brief chapter-by-chapter sketch or to focus on one or two chapters. The focus of the annotation is dependent upon the focus of the paper.
- Author's last name, first name. Title of Book: Subtitle. City: Publisher, Year. Annotation.
- (First) Author's last name, first name, (Second) Author's first and last name. Title of Book:. City: Publisher, Year. Annotation.
- Author's last name, first name. "Title of Article." Journal Name Volume number
- (Year): Page(s). Annotation.
Article, one author, continuous pagination
Article, two authors, separate pagination
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