Mikhail Emmanuelovich Posnov was born in 1873 in Ryazan, Russia where he received his early education. He received his higher education at the Kiev Theological Academy. After finishing the Academy he became an associate professor there. In 1908 he was chosen as associate professor of the University of St. Vladimir in Kiev in the department of Church History. In 1910 he became professor of the Kiev Academy in the faculty of Holy Scripture, New Testament. In 1919 he was chosen university professor. After the Bolshevik revolution he taught at the Theological Academy of Sofia and the University of Sofia in Bulgaria. He died in October 1931 in Sofia without having published this History of the Christian Church. Posnov's study of the history of the early Church led him to recognize the teaching authority of the Bishop of Rome. His other works include, "Gnosticism of the Second Century, and the Triumph of Christianity over Gnosticism." His daughter, Irina Posnova, was for many years after his death a leader of the Russian Catholic community of Belgium, where the Russian edition of this book was published.TRANSLATORThomas E. Herman is a graduate of Dartmouth College and Johns Hopkins Medical Read more
When we are talking about the Great Schism, we can refer either to the split between the Byzantine Church and the Roman Church that occurred in 1054 or to the Great Western Schism that occurred between 1378 and 1417.
Both events played a major role in the history of Christianity. On this website, you will find information about the history of the schisms, their causes and their immediate effects.
The Schism of 1054 (also known as the East-West Schism) occurred when a representative of the Roman pope excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople, and the patriarch excommunicated the Roman pope in return.
That dual excommunication caused a formal split within the Christian church, dividing it into the Eastern Orthodox Church based in Constantinople and the Western Catholic Church based in Rome.
The Great Western Schism was the split in Latin Christendom that occurred between 1378 and 1417.
From 1378 to 1409, there were two rival popes, one in Rome and one in Avignon, France, and each claimed to be the one true pope.